Links to websites related to Permaculture

One definition of Permaculture: a form of culture, including agriculture, which can be sustained indefinitely.

ETHICAL FOUNDATION OF PERMACULTURE (CORE VALUES)
— Earth Care (recognizing the Earth is the source of all life, of which humans are a part of (not apart from)
— People Care (supporting people to develop healthy societies, or ones which do no harm to people or the planet)
— Fair Share (or placing limits on consumption)

GOALS OF ‘PERMANENT AGRICULTURE
1 Observe & Interact – “Beauty is in the eye of the beholder”, including the following characteristics of Nature:
—— Interconnectivity – all elements of system interact with one another
—— Multifunctionality – every element fulfills multiple functions
—— Redundancy – every function fulfilled by multiple elements
—— Diversity – rather than monocultures, especially in small areas
2 Catch & Store Energy – “Make hay while the sun shines”
—— Optimal use of energy – practically & efficiently, use energy (as much renewable energy as possible)
3 Obtain A Yield – “You can’t work on an empty stomach”
4 Apply Self-regulation & Accept Feedback – “The sins of the fathers are visited on the children of the seventh generation”
—— ‘Closing the loop’ – Use of natural resources & shaping of natural cycles & processes (the waste of one species / industry should be used as the ‘value-added’ input for another species / industry – conversely, nothing should
consume its own waste.
5 Use & Value Renewable Resources & Services – “Let nature take its course.”
—— ‘Sustainable’ systems
6 Produce No Waste – “Waste not want not. A stitch in time saves nine”
—— ‘Closing the loop’ – Use of natural resources & shaping of natural cycles & processes (the waste of one species / industry should be used as the ‘value-added’ input for another species / industry – conversely, nothing should consume its own waste.
—— Restoration – making sure the end result increases rather than depletes overall resources, i.e., considering both the harvest & the soil fertility
—— ‘Sustainable’ systems
7 Design From Patterns To Details – “Can’t see the wood for the trees”
8 Integrate Rather Than Segregate – “Many hands make light work”
—— Interconnectivity – all elements of system interact with one another
9 Use Small & Slow Solutions – “The bigger they are. The harder they fall”
—— ‘Resilient’ systems
10 Use & Value Diversity – “Don’t put all your eggs in one basket”
—— Diversity – rather than monocultures, especially in small areas
11 Use Edges & Value the Marginal – “Don’t think you are on the right track just because it’s a well-beaten path”
—— Overall Efficiency – making use of intensive systems in a small area, i.e., ‘edge effects’ & multi-layering, with highly productive small-scale structures
12 Creatively Use & Respond To Change – “Vision is not seeing things as they are but as they will be”

SUMMARIES OR ‘PHILOSOPHIES’ OF PERMACULTURE
—Essay – Permaculture and the Myth of Scarcity by Charles Eisenstein

DESIGN PRACTICES (PERMACULTURE INVOLVES 90% PLANNING with intelligent design and 10% work to implement the design and then much less work in maintenance.)
— Overviews
—— Permaculture wiki
—— Bill Mollison Permaculture Lecture Series, On-Line
——Bill Mollison’s free Permaculture Design Course PDF
— Patterns
— Zones & connecting links
— Aspects (Winds, sun’s angle, all seasons)
— Microclimates
— The Seven Layers & stacking them
—— Canopy / Tallest trees
—— Low trees / dwarf fruit trees
—— Shrubs
—— Herbaceous
—— Soil Surface / cover crops
—— Rhizosphere / root crops
—— Vertical layer / vines
—— Fungi some consider an eighth layer
— Polycultures / Guilds
— Edges, increasing borders between microclimates
— Perennials, increasing use of them for food (for people, domestic & wild creatures)
— Integration with wild & domestic fauna
—— Solar fencing, rotating pastures
—— Chicken tractors
—— Insect ‘hotels’

CHOICES
— SOIL (‘speeding’ up nature using its own principles)
—— Building Soil
——— Hugelkultur (mound of dead wood, leaves, leaf mold, grasses, compost, manure, soil)
——— Swales
———— Swales! (GardenWeb forum on all types of swales)
——— Composting
——— Elaine Ingram’s Compost Tea recipe
——— Sheet-mulching
——— Cover-cropping for fertility
——— Cover cropping for protection of crops being grown
simultaneously in same area

——— Biochar
___ Biologist, environmentalist & entrepreneur, Rob Lerner,
_____ explains the difference between fertilizer and fertility.
_____ And how biochar can save our soil. And bring us back
_____ from the brink of a climate disaster
_____ (video by Organic Consumers Association)

—— To Till or Not to Till
— WATER (designing land to capture, hold, & recycle its water)
——- Humus-rich soil (forms underground ‘reservoir’ that won’t evaporate easily)
——- Keyline Design, or Contouring to catch water
———- The Keyline Plan (1954) by P A Yeomans (free online HTML book)
———- The Challenge of Landscape (1958) by P A Yeomans (free online HTML book)
—— Water Catchments
—— Plants that use less water
—— Dense planting, or Stacking & Packing plants to create shade
—— Mulching
—— Rainwater Harvesting
—— Use of Graywater, or capturing sink, shower & laundry drain water
—PLANTS
—— FOREST GARDENING
——— Forest Gardening wiki
——— Tree Crops: A Permanent Agriculture (1929) by J Russell Smith (downloadable PDF)
—— SEED SAVING
———Community Seed Saving and Safe Seed Sources with Russ Bedford [5 Aug 2014 article]
—— PLANT PROTECTION
——— Natural Garden Pest Control
——— Making Bone Sauce : A traditional technique for keeping animals from browsing trees
——— permies.com’s Discussion Forum on Holzer’s recipe for Bone Sauce
—ANIMALS
——Domestic
——Wild

SCALE
— FARM
— GARDEN

BY REGION
— Temperate Climate
—— Temperate Climate Permaculture__(enjoy the whole website…)
— Local Permaculturist organizations
—— Great Lakes Permaculture Portal__(A collaboration of a number of folks across the bio-region who provide a resource guide for regenerative living)
—— Washtenaw Permaculture Meetup group__(has workdays at Buhr Park)
—— Whole Culture Repair (solution-based Michigan citizens & global expert consultants aiming on healing/regeneration of Michigan’s natural ecosystem processes)
—— Chiwara Permaculture__(Michigan based research, education, design and incubation firm. We focus on permaculture solutions in 6 main areas: Food, Energy, Water, Building, Transportation and Waste)

RESOURCES
— About Permaculture and the Permaculture Research Institute
— Free Videos from Geoff Lawton – create your own paradise
— Plants for a future
— Holistic agriculture Library
— Transitionculture / Rob Hopkins & Permaculture
Books for $
— Gaia’s Garden by Toby Hemenway (California climate)
— Permaculture by Sepp Holzer (mountain-farmer in Austria)
— Creating a Forest Garden: Working with Nature to Grow Edible Crops by Martin Crawford (UK temperate climate)
— Restoration Agriculture: Real-world Permaculture for Farmers by Mark Shepard (farms in Wisconsin)
— The Vegetable Gardener’s Guide to Permaculture by Christopher Shein (Ann Arbor native)
— Permaculture Handbook by Peter Bane (published in Bloomington, IN)
— How to Grow More Vegetables (and fruits, nuts, berries, grains, and other crops) by John Jeavons (Ecology Action Center’s GROW BIOINTENSIVE Method, California)

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